Electric Vehicles in India

Over the past few decades, the world has witnessed drastic changes in science and technology. One such advancement in technology is the transformation in the automobile sector. Within a few years, a phenomenal change has occurred in this sector, making everyone awed at the development.

But, these developments just didn’t meet their end. With the changing society and environment, people also need something different that would meet their requirements. With the rise in pollution levels, all of them are on the lookout for an alternative option to the internal combustible engines. And here, the electric vehicles in India come into the picture.

What is an Electric Vehicle?

An Electric Vehicle can be a car or a bike, or any automobile, driven by electric motors with rechargeable energy-storing batteries (Just like having inverters). It is far better than to use petrol or diesel that emit fumes.

There are three categories of electric vehicles present around the world. They are

  1. Solar-powered electric cars and vehicles.
  2. Hybrid electric cars are driven by internal combustion and batteries.
  3. Electric cars, also known as battery-driven cars, are propelled by an on-board battery.

How can its use save the environment?

  1. The emission from EVs will be less over their lifetime when compared to vehicles running on fossil fuels. 
  2. By reducing the CO2 emission into the atmosphere, EVs can contribute to good climate change and reduce ecological damage.
  3. Curtails noise pollution as it operates very quietly. No need to worry about the curbing and muffling noises.
  4. Charging the vehicle during the night will help stabilize the electricity. 

It’s future in India

  1. India has already announced Electric Vehicles in car companies such as Hyundai, Mahindra, Porsche, Tata, etc.
  2. It is believed to be a better alternative in metropolitan cities where the pollution levels are dangerously beyond the limit.
  3. Many states have issued Electric Vehicle policies to date with Delhi, being the recent one.
  4. The government has slashed the GST rates for electric Vehicles to 5%, while it is 28% for vehicles with internal combustion.
  5. With a good durable battery, people will surely look for electric vehicles in the future. Like considering mileage for fuel vehicles, the kilometers coverage of Electric Vehicles for a one-time charge is very important and needs to be very high to attract consumers.
Tata Nexon EV India

Advantages of Electric Vehicles

  1. More energy efficient as it converts 77% of energy to power the wheels, whereas vehicles with normal combustible engines convert only 12% of the energy to power the wheels.
  2. No need for replacement of battery frequently as your mobile battery.
  3. While fossil fuel vehicles emit large amounts of particulates directly into thin air, it might cause severe health issues such as asthma and many others. But, Electric Vehicles would never emit such particulates directly into the air.
  4. It is 70 – 80% cheaper than fuel vehicles. It is always affordable to charge a battery after it is dead rather than filling the fuel tank every time.
  5. Electric Vehicles don’t have many moving components, so the maintenance charge of these vehicles is relatively less.

Some hurdles and drawbacks

  1. As we have already mentioned, there won’t be any CO2 mission from the Electric Vehicle but, the emissions will be far greater during the production of the vehicle itself.
  • The production of Lithium-Ion batteries needs many resources like Lithium, nickel, cobalt, manganese, etc.
  • The mining process of all these resources has to be performed before producing the battery.
  • Finally, the types of machinery used for battery production need more carbon and carbon would finally pollute the environment, thus creating severe problems to the environment.
  • One of the main ingredients needed for the production of LiB batteries is Cobalt.
  • It is a costly ingredient.
  • It is needed in abundant quantities, but the availability is just meagre.
  • Cobalt needs Copper and nickel that has to be mined.
  • It also needs more labor to work hard to extract the metals. 
  • There had been a history of child labor and death due to mining.
  • Lack of noise, considered as one of the advantages, might also turn to be the biggest disadvantage for quite a few persons. 
  • Let us say, blind and deaf. Though this drawback can be regulated with better protocols for pedestrians, this risk factor needs to be considered.
  • Supply-demand gap: with the rise in demand, the supply should also spike accordingly. If the supply didn’t meet the demand, the consumers will always be hesitant to opt for Electric Vehicles.

Grown projections

The Indian government has decided to make 30% of the vehicles electric by 2030 and has already started to work through achieving the target.

  1. In the next ten years, Electric Vehicles are believed to have phenomenal growth.
  2. Statistics suggest that there was a rise in interest in electric vehicles amongst the public in comparison to vehicles with combustible engines.
  3. More than two-wheelers, the interest rate is in the spike for four-wheelers.

Yet, with its effective policies, the government can promote the usage of Electric Vehicles amongst the public.

  1. Cap on CO2 emissions: The government can devise a strict policy to limit the emission of CO2 in the atmosphere. This will encourage people to go for Electric Vehicles in India that don’t emit fumes directly into the air.
  2. More subsidies: The government can announce more subsidies to Electric vehicles will attract people to buy Electric Vehicles.
  3. Tax exemptions: Waive tax loans up to a considerable amount for those who want to buy an electric vehicle. 
  4. Charging stations: Just like petrol and diesel bulks then and there, government and private people can set up charging stations at regular distances. This would clear the people of their fear of running out of charge in the middle of nowhere.
  5. Set up own manufacturing of LiB batteries: Currently, there is no battery manufacturing hub in India, and we rely completely on imports from Japan, China, Europe, and Korea. Setting up of indigenous manufacturing hubs is much needed for the growth of the Electric vehicle sector. 
EV Future India Growth Projections

How long will it take for people to choose Electric Vehicles?

According to the reports, the impact of Electric Vehicles in India is just 1% of the total vehicle sales. 

  1. Taking the 1% sales into consideration, 95% of sales are electric two-wheelers. 
  2. So, many have started selling back their old peps and scooters to get a new electric two-wheeler. This is a major breakthrough for sure.
  3. The demand for electric two-wheelers is on the rise for various reasons such as less space needed for parking and low financial need.
  4. This is the beginning of the shift from fuel vehicles to electric vehicles. Very soon, with the rising need for luxury and comfort, people will shift from two-wheelers to Electric cars. 


I can conclude by saying that nothing can be achieved without taking any risks and facing challenges. If a nation has to progress, it has to devise proper regulations and make protocols to nullify the challenges one by one. 

While EVs have their own drawbacks, they are in some way helpful to the environment. With better environmental regulations and government policies, Electric Vehicles can be promoted to become an asset to the environment in the near future.

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